FAQs about Pneumatic Fenders
FAQs about Pneumatic Fenders
FAQs about Foam Filled Fender
FAQs about Mooring Buoys
FAQs about Marine Airbag

FAQs about Pneumatic Fenders

What are Outer and inner rubber material requirements for Yokohama type floating fenders

Test itemTest methodRequired valueOuter rubberInner rubber1. Before aging–––1.1 Tensile strengthISO 37:201118 MPa or more10 MPa or more1.2 ElongationISO 37:2011400 % or more400 % or more1.3 HardnessISO 7619-1:201060 ± 10 (Durometer hardnessType A)50 ± 10 (Durometer Hardness Type A)2. After agingISO 188:2011Air oven aging, 70°C ± 1°C, 96 hAir oven aging, 70°C ± 1°C, 96 h2.1 Tensile strengthISO 37:2011Not less than 80 % of the originalpropertyNot less than 80 % of the origi-nal property2.2 ElongationISO 37:2011Not less than 80 % of the originalpropertyNot less than 80 % of the origi-nal property2.3 HardnessISO 7619-1:2010Not to exceed the original prop-erty by more than 8Not to exceed the original prop-erty by more than 83. TearISO 34-1:2010400 N/cm or moreNo requirement4. Compression setISO 815-1:200830 %(70 ± 1 °C, 22hours) or lessNo requirement5. Static ozone aging testISO 1431-1:2012No cracks after elongation by 20 % and exposure to 50 pphma at 40 °C for 96 hNo requirement

What is the advantage of pneumatic fenders compared to traditional fenders ?

What is the advantage of pneumatic fenders compared to traditional fenders 1. Safety and ReliabilityYokohama Type Pneumatic Rubber Fenders are constructed of several layers of strong tire-cord, and are thus resistant to pressure and cutting. The safety factor adopted in the design of this fender is based on accepted theory and has been proven by extensive experimentation. large-size fenders are equipped with a safety valve to release the inside air in the event of accidental over-pressure. 2. No Deterioration or Variation in Performance Jerryborg Marine Pneumatic Rubber Fenders utilize the compressive elasticity of air, therefore performance deterioration due to fatigue is absent. our Pneumatic Rubber Fenders also fully comply with the durability test required by ISO17357-1: 2014. Any reduction of the guaranteed energy absorption (GEA) is not accepted. 3. Advantages at Inclined Berthing Yokohama Pneumatic Rubber Fenders, energy absorption does not decrease at inclined compression up to 15 degrees.                                                Reduction of Energy Absorption at Inclined Berthing for Pneumatic, Solid and Foam Fender Distribution of load is also comparatively even because of the molecular freedom of air and high flexibility of the multi-layered cord-reinforced rubber membrane.                                                           Load Distribution at Inclined Berthing for Pneumatic, Solid and Foam Fender  4. Most Cost Competitive SystemThe utilization of the compressive elasticity of air, unlike other fenders which need protector panels, provides completely uniform surface pressure on contact, making Pneumatic Rubber Fenders ideal. The surface pressure of the Yokohama Pneumatic Rubber Fenders is equal to the internal air pressure 5. Soft Reaction Force for Ship and Jetty StructureThe reaction force of Pneumatic Rubber Fenders does not increase sharply, even under excess load conditions. Therefore, the Pneumatic Rubber Fenders perform well in such cases, and protect ships and mooring facilities. In contrast, the reaction force of solid rubber fenders, including buckling-type fenders, increases sharply under excess load conditions.                                                                                     Soft Reaction Force for Ship and Jetty Structure it can be seen that the Pneumatic Rubber Fenders are ideal as fender system because of gentle treatment of ships in below table. Compression StageComparisonA, A' : Buckling point of solid fenderPneumatic fender has lower reaction force and exerts lower hull pressure compared to the solid rubber fender B, B' : Normal deflection pointPneumatic fender has lower reaction force and exerts lower hull pressure compared to the solid rubber fender C, C' : Designed rated energy pointPneumatic fender has slightly higher reaction force only at this point D, D' : Abnormal berthing pointPneumatic fender has lower reaction force and exerts lower hull pressure compared to the solid rubber fender 6. Lower Mooring Forces under Rough Weather Conditions the reaction force and deflection of Pneumatic Rubber Fenders do not easily reach the maximum because the reaction force increases slowly and allowable deflection is wide. Thus, the Pneumatic Rubber Fenders safely protect ships and mooring facilities even under rough weather conditions.The use of Pneumatic Rubber Fenders sometimes eliminates the necessity of constructing a breakwater in the harbor. There are many studies and reports relating tothe above subjects.                                       Model Studies on Ship's Movement with Yokohama Pneumatic Rubber Fender & with Buckling Fender                                                       Calculation Results of Harbor Oscillations for Ship Motions moored along Quay Walls 7. Stronger against Shearing Force Pneumatic Rubber Fenders are adequately reinforced using strong tire-cord to cope against such forces as well as internal pressure.                                                                                                         Stronger against Shearing Force 8. Adaptable to the Tide Pneumatic Rubber Fenders basically float on the water in an unrestricted vertical plane corresponding to the tidal range and ship's vertical movement.This means that energy absorption always takes place at the most suitable position.                                                                                                Adaptable to Tide 9. Simple and Low Cost Installation The weight of Pneumatic Rubber Fenders is supported by the water on which it floats. Therefore, the fender can be moored simply by means of a guy rope or chain, requiring minimal extra cost. It can be removed easily to a suitable jetty or quay when not in use, or transferred to another mooring point whenever required.                                                     Φ1000×2000L-P50 Jerryborg Marine Pneumatic Rubber Fenders installed at a jetty 10. Low Maintenance Cost Maintenance cost of Jerryborg Marine Pneumatic Rubber Fenders is very low. Although the internal pressure will vary with seasonal changes, the air leakage is so minimal that it is sufficient to check the air pressure only once a year. The chain net needs to be replaced only once in 3 or 4 years, depending on ambient conditions. 11. Shipping Cost Minimization In order to minimize the shipping cost of Pneumatic Rubber Fenders, the fenders are usually packed and shipped in containers or on pallets in deflated and folded down state.                                                                            Vacuumed and Folded Down Condition for D4500×9000L-P80

What is standard sizes of pneumatic marine docking rubber fender ?

The Docking Pneumatic Rubber Fenders are available in the following sizes, which are generally expressed in terms of diameter by length.                                                                    Standard Sizes of Pneumatic Rubber Fender

Nine Main Types of Pneumatic Rubber Fender

How many types of floating pneumatic fenders are available ? Type I—Net-type Pneumatic FendersNet-type fenders (Type Ⅰ) are covered with a chain net, wire net or fiber net for small size fenders. Usually these nets have used-tires together with rubber sleeves for additional protection, except fiber net which has only rubber sleeves. Chain nets last longer against corrosion, while wire nets are light and more easily repaired. Type II—Sling Type Floating Rubber Fenders Sling-type fenders (TypeⅡ) Φ500×1000L - Φ4500×9000L have an attachment eye on each end for lifting and installation. Handling of sling type fenders is easy due to their lightweight. Type III—Ribbed Type Pneumatic FendersRibbed type fenders have rubber humps on fender body for better protection purpose. The cushioning effect is better than sling type.  Type IV—Rubber Mat & Rope Type Pneumatic FendersRubber Mat & Rope Type adopts rubber mat, ropes and rubber tube as net for protection and cushion. It is one kind of sling type pneumatic fenders.  Type V—Rubber Sleeve Net Type Pneumatic Fenders Rubber sleeve nets cover the chain net completely by strong rubber sleeves. The rubber sleeve is made of rubber reinforced with synthetic-tire-cord. The standard colors of the rubber sleeve are black and orange. Type VI—Fiber Rope Type Floating Fenders Fiber rope nets cover the fender body completely by strong marine ropes. The rope is made of reinforced fiber material. The colors of the fiber rope are various.  Type VII—Aircraft Tire Chain Net Aircraft tire chain nets use air craft tires, instead of automobile tires, to keep larger stand-off distance and enough protection for the fender body. Type VIII—Grey Rubber, White Rubber Floating Fenders Grey/White rubber is a specially formulated rubber with color compound added. Creamy white color can be requested instead of grey color as an alternative. Type IX Vertical Hydro-pneumatic Fender Vertical Hydro-pneumatic Pneumatic Rubber Fenders are specially designed pneumatic fenders that can be water-ballasted and installed vertically.They are popular with vessels whose berthing point is below the water line such as catamaran ships, semi-submersibles platforms or other submersibles.

What is the basic construction of pneumatic rubber fenders ?

What is the basic construction of pneumatic rubber fenders ? The Floating-type Yokohama Pneumatic Rubber Fenders are kind of a cylindrical air bag with hemisphericalheads at both ends. Basic body construction of this fender consists of an outer rubber layer, cord layers and an inner rubber layer. All of these are vulcanized together, and then proven by hydraulic pressure test. Outer RubberThe outer rubber layer protects the cord layers and inner rubber layer from abrasion and other external forces. This compound has sufficient tensile and tear strength to withstand any weather condition and hard usage. Standard color is black, but other colors such as grey and creamy white are available on request. Test ItemInspection MethodsOuter RubberInner RubberBefore AgingTensile strengthISO 37 : 201118 Mpa or more10 Mpa or moreElongationISO 37 : 2011400% or more.400% or more.HardnessISO 7619-1: 201060 ±10(Durometer hardness Type A)50 ±10(Durometer hardness Type A)After Aging Test method ISO188:199870±1C°× 96 hrsTensile strengthISO 37 : 2011Not less than 80% of the original propertyNot less than 80% of the original propertyElongationISO 37 : 2011Not less than 80% of the original propertyNot less than 80% of the original propertyHardnessISO 7619-1: 2010Not to exceed the original property by more than 8Not to exceed the original property by more than 8Tear resistanceISO 34-1 : 2010400 N/cm or moreNo requirementCompression testISO 815-1 : 200830% (70±1C°for 22 hrs) or lessNo requirementStatic ozone aging testISO 1431-1 : 2012No cracks after elongation by 20% and exposure to 50 pphm at 40C°for 96 hrs No requirement Synthetic-tire-cord LayerThe reinforcement cord layers, which are made of Synthetic-tire-cord, are arranged at ideal angles to hold the internal pressure and to distribute the stress evenly. As the main fibers of the synthetic-tire-cord are not braided like synthetic canvas fabric or synthetic belt fabric, there are advantages for its fatigue-resistance performance and pressure-holding performance. Inner RubberThe inner rubber layer seals the air inside, utilizing a compound equivalent to that of the liner or tube of an automobile tire. 

How to install Yokohama type pneumatic rubber fenders ?

Installation MethodsAt both ends of the fender, first shackles, then swivel joints, followed by a further shackle should be installed. A guy chain or guy rope is secured to the outer shackle. The swivel joint prevents twisting of the guy chain or wire.

What is the initial pressure rating of pneumatic fenders ?

What is the initial pressure rating of pneumatic fenders ?There are two initial pressure ratings for Yokohama Type Pneumatic Rubber Fenders :1) Pneumatic 50 (P50, Initial internal pressure 50KPa, 0.05Mpa)2) Pneumatic 80 (P80, Initial internal pressure 80KPa, 0.08Mpa)

What is ISO17357-1:2014 ?

What is ISO17357:1/2014 Certificate ISO 17357-1:2014 specifies the material, performance, and dimensions of high-pressure floating pneumatic rubber fenders, which are intended to be used for the berthing and mooring of a ship to another ship or berthing structure.Pneumatic fenders should be fully ISO17357-1:2014 compliant, and have supporting, authenticated certification to prove it.Please be kindly advised that ISO 9001/9002 is not an indicator of pneumatic fender performance.To know more technical requirements of ISO17357-1:2014, please contact us to get full technical instruction.

What is the structure of pneumatic fender ?

What is the structure of Yokohama type floating pneumatic rubber fender ?  3.1 outer rubberrubber layer that covers the outside of the fender to protect the cord layers and the inner liner rubber from abrasion and other external forces 3.2 inner rubberliner of a rubber membrane that seals the pressurized air inside the fender 3.3 synthetic-tyre-cord layer for reinforcementlayer made of synthetic-tyre-cord fabric, which maintains the internal air pressure of the fender. As the main fibres of the synthetic-tyre-cord fabric are not braided like synthetic canvas fabric or synthetic belt fabric, there are advantages for its fatigue-resistance performance and pressure-holding performance. 3.4 Air Valve and Safety ValveMedium and small sized Floating Yokohama Type Pneumatic Rubber Fenders are equipped with a small air valve, which is the same in size and construction as the air valve of an automobile tire. This valve serves as both air-check, air charge and release valve. On the large size fenders a big valve and a safety valve are equipped, the big valve serves for an air-charging and release, and the safety valve serves for releasing excess internal pressure when the fender is accidentally over compressed. 3.5 bead ringsteel ring which is placed at one end (or both ends) of the fender and holds the end of cord layers 3.6 flange openingsteel flange which is mounted on the fender, to which an air valve or safety valve can be adapted 3.7 fender cageFender cage covers the outer rubber layer to protect the whole fender body, the fender cage has various versions which also distinguish the fender type. 3.8 towing ringTowing ring is connected to opening flange and combine the fender cage for easy lifting and moving. It is often connected with additional end shackle and swivels. 

How to select floating pneumatic fender ?

How to select pneumatic fender ? Ship-to-ShipThe fender selection procedure for ship-to-ship operations is outlined below.Two ship types, sizes and weather conditions such as Calm, Moderate and Rough are initially confirmed. OCIMF Table SelectionEquivalent displacement coefficient ; ''C'' is calculated, and fenders are selected tentatively by using the table in OCIMF Ship-to-Ship Transfer Guide ; '' OCIMF Table Selection''. In this case, initial internal pressure of the fender shall be 50kPa (Pneumatic 50). The selections are designed based on Calm weather condition, therefore if the weather is confirmed as Calm, the fender system can be simply selected from the tables. Quick Reference Guide to Fender Selection for STS Operations                        PETROLEUM, CHEMICALS and LIQUEFIED GASSESEquivalent Displacement Coefficient (C)Relative VelocityBerthing EnergySuggested FendersTonnesm / sTonnes.mDiameter × Length (m)Quantity1,0000.302.41.0 × 2.03 or more3,0000.307.01.5 × 3.0〃6,0000.3014.02.5 × 5.5〃10,0000.2517.02.5 × 5.5〃30,0000.2540.03.3 × 6.54 or more50,0000.2048.03.3 × 6.5〃100,0000.1554.03.3 × 6.5〃150,0000.1571.03.3 × 6.55 or more200,0000.1593.03.3 × 6.5〃330,0000.15155.04.5 × 9.04 or more500,0000.15231.04.5 × 9.0〃    Model Selection of Pneumatic Fender for Small & Middle Size Ship Ship Tonnage(T)Recommendation Size D x L ( m)Ship Type500.5 x1.0Fishing ship1000.7 x 1.5~1.0 x 1.5Fishing ship2001.0 x 1.5~1.2 x 2.0Fishing ship, towing ship300-5001.2 x 2.0~1.5 x 2.5Fishing ship, towing ship10001.5 x 2.5~1.5 x 3.0Towing ship, cargo ship30002.0 x 3.0~2.0 x 3.5cargo ship, ocean trawler100002.0 x 3.5~2.5 x 4.0cargo ship